3.   PraVESHIKA Purna

The Praveshika Purna tabla exam incorporate a deeper level of understanding for various definitions and compositions. In addition to the practical portion, students will see a written exam for the first time to test their theoretical knowledge. The written exam will include bols/phrases, compositions, and notation systems.

Sylllabus

Theory

1. Knowledge of Vilambit, Madhya, and Drut Laya

2. Bols/Phrases used in tabla

  • Bols produced only on Daya

  • Bols produced only on Baya

  • Bols produced on both drums together (simultaneously)

  • Bols produced using combination of both drums simultaneously or separately

3. Knowledge of playing techniques of the following bols

  • TRKT, tekS kdaan, kda dha, KTTK, GDNG, DRDR, trake, kda dhaane, GDGN, etc

4. Detailed knowledge of Pt. Bhatkhande and Pt. Paluskar notation systems.

5. Ability to write tukdas in teentaal and jhaptaal in Pt. Bhatkhande system

6. Definitions

  • Kayda, Palta, Rela, Tihai, Mukhda, Mohra, Laggi, Uthaan, Chakradaar

Notes

1. Knowledge of Vilambit, Madhya, and Drut Laya

Laya, or tempo, is an important element of music. It is the distance between two maatras. When the distance between two maatras increases, the speed of the composition slows down, and vice versa. In other words, laya represents the equal movement of time and the equal spacing between two maatras. Laya also means destruction: when a second maatra is produced, the time interval or the reign of the first maatra fades away. An artist may perform in various layas according to the rules of Indian Classical Music. 

There a three main types of layas: Vilambit (slower), Madhya (medium), and Drut (faster). Ati-Vilambit and Ati-Drut correspond to extra-slow and extra-fast, respectively. 

  1. Madhya Laya - Medium tempo, approximately equal to heart rate, 80 bpm

  2. Vilambit Laya- Slow tempo played at approximately ½ of the speed of the Madhya Laya, 40 bpm 

  3. Drut Laya - Fast tempo played at approximately 2 times the speed of the Madhya Laya, 160 bpm

There aren’t precise numbers for each laya, it is relative to the composition.

Performances in Indian Classical Music tend to develop from vilambit to drut laya, meaning that the speed increases periodically. Peshkaar is considered a vilambit laya composition, kaydas are played in madhya laya, and relas/chakradaar/gat are usually in drut laya. The importance of this sequence is that a slower speed at the beginning allows for more room to improvise, fill the maatras, and essentially warm up. As a performance continues, and the energy or mahol becomes more powerful, the laya increases all the way up to drut and ati-drut, where fixed compositions with heavy consonants (ex. tukdas) are played. 

More Info

2. Bols/Phrases used in tabla

  • Bols produced only on Daya

  • ta, tite, ti, na, tun, ne with ring finger, tak, tiretire, ...

  • Bols produced only on Baya

  • ge, ke, ghi, ...

  • Bols produced on both drums together (simultaneously)

  • dha, dhin, tin, ...

  • Bols produced using combination of both drums simultaneously or separately

  • dhage, tinakena, dhina, dhite, TRKT, DRDR, GDNG, GDGN, KTTK, trake, ...

3. Knowledge of playing techniques of the following bols

  • TRKT, tekSkdaan, kda dha, KTTK, GDNG, DRDR, trake, kda dhaane, GDGN, etc

 

Be able to describe the hand movements (up and down or side to side) when playing each bol and the specific fingers and parts of fingers that are utilized when playing each bol. Be able to describe which exact part of the tabla or dagga are struck for each individual bol. 

4. Detailed knowledge of Pt. Bhatkhande and Pt. Paluskar notation systems.

Click Here

The exam may test your ability to write in both types of notation systems by asking you to write specific compositions in a particular notation system. (Example: Write tigun of rupak in Pt. Paluskar notation system).

5. Ability to write tukdas in teentaal and jhaptaal in Pt. Bhatkhande system

Write various tukdas according to what has been taught to you. Examples of simple tukdas:

Teentaal tukda pt. bhatkhande notation system tabla
jhaptaal tukda pt. bhatkhande notation system tabla

6. Definitions

  • Kayda, Palta, Rela, Tihai, Mukhda, Mohra, Laggi, Uthaan, Chakradaar

KaydaAn expansionary composition with a balance of consonant and vowel phrases which begin and ends with a vowel phrase is called a kayda. Kaydas have khaali and bhari components and divisions. The divisions of a kayda may either be symmetrical to the taal in which the kayda is established or may fall in odd places. More Info

Palta- Expansionary compositions such as kaydas or relas are improvised upon through the help of paltas. A palta is a variation which is derived from the bols of the mukh or theme of the kayda or rela. Paltas help to show different combinations of a mukh using the bols of that mukh. Mathematically, we can come up with a seemingly endless amount of permutations and combinations using a specific language, and the expansion process differs from player to player. 

Rela- A rela is an expansionary composition which begins with a vowel but ends with a consonant phrase. A rela has rapid bols and is played in drut laya, helping to create a harmonious chain or musical flow. Many relas are abundant in consonants. More Info

Tihai- A Tihai is a composition in which a phrase is repeated 3 times with 2 equal pauses to arrive on a designated position, usually but not necessarily the sum. More Info

Mukhda- A mukhda is a short and attractive composition of a few maatras used to land on the sum. A mukhda is longer than Mohra but shorter than Tukda. The length of a Mukhda is generally equal to or less than one Awartan. It uses stronger bols such as those found in a Paran. Some stalwarts say that a mukhda usually is the combination of bols composed in the last few maatras of an awartan in order to arrive at the sum. It may or may not have a tihai.

Mohra- A mohra is a small composition used to arrive at the sum gracefully. It is shorter in length than Mukhda and uses softer bols. It is usually a pick-up phrase or hook played spontaneously in accompaniment to vocal/instrumental music in order to transition onto the next awartan. It may or may not have a tihai. 

Laggi- A short, attractive theme played in drut laya in taals such as dadra or keherwa. It is one of the smallest expandable compositions, of which the variations or referred to as "laut-palat," meaning "back and forth," referring to the combinations made in the variations of the laggi. A laggi is a useful composition for accompaniment.

Uthaan- An attractive fixed composition played at the beginning of a solo performance. Benares Gharana players usually start their solo with an uthaan, which helps to increase the energy amongst the audience. It is played in fast tempo, can have features of a tukda or paran, and and can be short and long.

Chakradaar- A chakradaar includes a tihai-containing tukda which is repeated 3 times in order to land on the sum. It is essentially a tihai played 3 times. More Info